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      1. 2019年GRE考試練習及答案6

        GRE留學考試考試網 鯉魚小編 更新時間:2019-07-16

        2019GRE考試就在一個月后開始,為了讓大家更好的備考,鯉魚小編為大家準備了一些 考試的練習題,快來看看吧。

        GRE閱讀題目解析:全新世晚期

        Human impacts on the natural environment during the later part of the Holocene (beginning about 4,000 years ago) complicate investigations into environmental change during that period because the signals produced by human-and climate-induced change are sometimes difficult to separate. For example, in the later Holocene, one indicator of increased aridity due to climate change is an increase in pollen from grasses, as forest vegetation gives way to grassland. Such a change in vegetation could alternatively be attributed to human impact in the form of agricultural development. Examples of such human impact from 4,000 years ago would be small-scale, however, since the broad ecosystem changes brought about by the widespread adoption of agricultural technologies occurred later.

        1. Which of the following best describes the function of the highlighted sentence in the context of the passage as a whole?

        A. It provides an example of the kind of problems that often complicate investigations into environmental change.

        B. It call into question the reliability of the established dates for later Holocene agricultural development.

        C. It describes the nature of localized agricultural developments during the later Holocene.

        D. It outlines a hypothesis that draws on evidence discussed earlier in the passage.

        E. It limits the scope of a particular complication mentioned earlier in the passage.

        2. According to the passage, which of the following is true regarding environmental changes 4,000 years ago?

        A. No localized increases in grass pollen were caused by agricultural development.

        B. Increases in grass pollen were at least sometimes a reflection of an increase in aridity.

        C. Wholesale ecosystem changes probably resulted from agricultural development.

        D. Any small-scale changes occurring then would not be detectable now.

        E. Environmental change helped induce the adoption of agricultural technologies.

        解析:

        1.Human impacts on the natural environment during the later part of the Holocene (beginning about 4,000 years ago) complicate investigations into environmental change during that period because the signals produced by human- and climate-induced change are sometimes difficult to separate.

        全新世晚期(開始于約 4000 年前)人類對自然環境的影響,讓關于當時環境改變的研究變得復雜,因為人類引起的改變和氣候引起的改變,有時難以區分。

        全新世 [Holocene epoch]

        舊稱最新世(Recent epoch)

        地球地質史的最后階段,時間從10,000年前到現在。是構成第四紀的兩個世中年代較晚的一個,在更新世最后一個冰期之后,特點是氣候條件比較溫暖。這時期,人類技術有所精進,逐漸導向現代文明水平。(大英袖珍百科)

        2.For example, in the later Holocene, one indicator of increased aridity due to climate change is an increase in pollen from grasses, as forest vegetation gives way to grassland.

        例如,全新世晚期,因氣候改變而導致干旱加劇的一種指標,是禾本植物的劃分增多,因為 森林植被 被草原取代。

        3.Such a change in vegetation could alternatively be attributed to human impact in the form of agricultural development.

        這樣一種植被的改變,也可以被另外地解釋為人類農業的發展的后果。

        4.Examples of such human impact from 4,000 years ago would be small-scale, however, since the broad ecosystem changes brought about by the widespread adoption of agricultural technologies occurred later.

        4000 年前,這類人類影響的例子可能是小規模的,然而,因農業技術的廣泛傳播而產生的大范圍生態系統改變,隨后就發生了。

        (現在來看,since 句是個病句,要么把 since 劃掉,否則只能認為材料截取原文時漏掉了一些內容,使 since 作為一個連詞,引導了一個無意義的分句)

        1. Which of the following best describes the function of the highlighted sentence in the context of the passage as a whole?

        A. It provides an example of the kind of problems that often complicate investigations into environmental change.

        B. It call into question the reliability of the established dates for later Holocene agricultural development.

        C. It describes the nature of localized agricultural developments during the later Holocene.

        D. It outlines a hypothesis that draws on evidence discussed earlier in the passage.

        E. It limits the scope of a particular complication mentioned earlier in the passage.

        E

        理一下文章邏輯:

        全新世后期,約 4000 年前開始,人們在研究環境改變的課題時,遇到了問題,環境改變可能是因為人類的原因,也可能是因為氣候的原因,二者難以區分,或算出明確的比例。比如禾本植物的花粉增多,意味著干旱,但科學家們無法確認,是因為氣候干旱,樹枯死了草開始生長,還是人類的農業活動伐木墾田導致的。所謂 complication 指的就是這種說不清。

        高亮句說,開始人類活動是小規模的,后來蔓延開來。可以認為是限定了 complication 程度,小規模意味著比較容易分辨,還勉強說得清,考察其他沒有人類影響的地區就好,但后來人類活動范圍變大了,就說不清了。

        所以選 E

        2. According to the passage, which of the following is true regarding environmental changes 4,000 years ago?

        A. No localized increases in grass pollen were caused by agricultural development.

        B. Increases in grass pollen were at least sometimes a reflection of an increase in aridity.

        C. Wholesale ecosystem changes probably resulted from agricultural development.

        D. Any small-scale changes occurring then would not be detectable now.

        E. Environmental change helped induce the adoption of agricultural technologies.

        B

        至少有時禾本植物花粉變多反映了干旱加劇。

        A 錯。如果跟農業發展一點關系都沒有,根本不可能 difficult to seprate

        C 錯。也可能有氣候因素。

        D 錯。未知信息。

        E 錯。因果關系說反了,是農業推廣加速了環境改變,人種地不會意識到最近一千年越來越干旱了,終于適合種地了,古人不可能有這種意識。

        大家可以多關注鯉魚網,里面有最新的考試資訊和復習資料,還有題庫訊訓練的版塊,相信能夠給大家的復習帶來幫助。

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