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      1. 2019年托福考試備考閱讀理解匯總4

        托福考試網 鯉魚小編 更新時間:2019-07-23

        【待插入句子】 This process of speciation and colonization could have been repeated over and over again, gradually involving all the islands in the chain.

        【待插入段落】The species on the Galapagos Islands today, most of which occur nowhere else, descended from organisms that floated, flew, or were blown over the sea from the South American mainland. For instance, the Galapagos island chain has a total of thirteen species of closely related birds called Galapagos finches. These birds have many similarities but differ in their feeding habits and their beak type, which is correlated with what they eat. Accumulated evidence indicates that all thirteen finch species evolved from a single small population of ancestral birds that colonized one of the islands. Completely isolated on the island after migrating from the mainland, the founder population may have undergone significant changes in its gene pool and become a new species. [] Later, a few individuals of this new species may have been blown by storms to a neighboring island. []Isolated on this second island, the second founder population could have evolved into a second new species, which could later recolonize the island from which its founding population emigrated.[]Today each Galapagos island has multiple species of finches, with as many as ten on some islands.[]

        1.答案:3rd square;


        3.待插入段落:1st, G群島上的物種們(大部分在別處都不存在),起源于一些生物(它們漂浮/飛或者被吹過來)2nd, 舉個例子,G群島共有13種關系緊密的鳥類(G flinches)3rd, 這些鳥兒在飲食習性及嘴巴類型上有差異(這和它們的食物相匹配)4th, 越來越多證據表明,13種鳥都來自一種古代鳥。5th, 完全隔絕在島上,最初的群體經歷了巨大的改變(在基因庫),并變成了新物種。

        6th, 之后,(新物種的)一些個體被風暴吹到了臨近的島嶼。

        7th, 在這第二個島上被隔離,第二個founder population進化出第二個新物種(它們后來重新占領了那個島——它們的祖先就是從這里移居出去的)

        8th, 現在,每個G島都有好多種類的flinches

        4.分析:待插入句子提到了this process,所以要有指代,而且說的是不斷分化和殖民的過程,看起來是比較概括性的說法,前面應該對這個過程有具體闡述。

        在段落中,前面第一句話是總起的Topic Sentence; 之后舉具體的例子,開始描述G群島上鳥類的分化過程,5th7th具體講了如何從最初的鳥分化到更多,所以正好放在7th后面,8th開始講分化之后的結果,正好銜接起來。


        descended from 起源于

        differ in 有差異

        correlated with ...相符

        founder 創建者